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Truth or Urban Legend?

Is it true? Or is it a myth? An urban legend? An Internet hoax? Check these sites to find the answers.



The goals of accurate citation are:

  1. To credit the author, and
  2. To enable the reader to find the material.

Librarians at the Libraries’ Reference Desks will be glad to provide assistance in locating and using these tools.

Please consult your instructor if you have any questions about the citation format you are to follow.



PLAGIARISM: using anyone else’s ideas, words, graphics, music, or other material without giving them credit (citing the material). Paraphrasing and sampling, when the sources are not cited, are examples of plagiarism.


RefWorks Logo
RefWorks, citation formatting software is now available, for GVSU users only

  • Tutorial: APA & MLA Citation, from Eastern Washington University
  • Bedford St. Martin’s Online! Citation Styles — citing electronic sources
  • Citing Blogs, from the National Library of Medicine Style Guide
  • Diana Hacker: Research and Documentation Online
  • Purdue University Online Writing Lab Resources –Documenting Electronic Sources
  • Citing Articles Found or Retrieved with InfoTrac, including General Reference Center Gold, Health Reference Center-Academic, and Kid’s Edition
  • Citing Articles Found or Retrieved with Lexis Nexis
  • GVSU Writing Center
  • How to Cite Electronic Sources (& many types of media available online, including films, pictures, legal documents, and reproductions of texts– Library of Congress)
  • KnightCite — Calvin College Citation Generator
  • Landmark Citation Machine
  • NoodleToolsSubscription service:$4.00 for 3 months, $6.00 for 6 months (25% discount), or $8.00 for one year (12 months, 50% discount).
  • Writing Guidelines for Engineering and Science Students & Documentation of Sources (Virginia Tech)
  • More information can be found in these books at the University Libraries’ Reference Desks:

    • The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed. (Chicago IL: University of Chicago Press, 2003), pp. 633-635, 698-699. REF DESK / PE 1478 .U69 2003
    • Garner, Diane L., The Complete guide to citing government information resources: a manual for writers & librarians (Bethesda MD: Congressional Information Service, 1993), pp. 151-194. REF DESK / PE 1478 .G37 1993
    • Gibaldi, Joseph, MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (New York: The Modern Language Association of America, 2003). REF DESK / PE 1478 .G52 2003
    • Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 5th ed. (Washington, DC: American Pyschological Association, 2001). REF DESK / PE 1479 .P7 P8 2001

    Related Links

    See UCLA College Library Session Evaluations for excellent web-based forms

    TLA “Learning Styles with Flair” Handouts
    Facilitating Faculty-Librarian Communication

    Tips and Techniques for Library Instruction
    Library Instruction Round Table, Research Committee — Library Instruction Teaching Tips

    Grading Criteria and Rubrics

    Grading, Marking, Scoring & Rubrics/Primary Trait Analyses

    From: “Transcending the Acquisition of Information: Evaluating Students’ Information Literacy Skills” (at 2003 GVSU Fall Teaching Conference)

    Why is it important to grade the quality of sources which students incorporate into their assignments?
    • Grades give status & importance; they drive student engagement
    • Makes clear to students what is being assessed & faculty expectations

    Small & large group discussion of what should be assessed regarding sources in student papers:

    • Number of sources
    • Limiting types of sources
    • Quality of sources
    • Accuracy of the sources
    • Recency or historical viewpoint
    • Diversity of opinions in sources
    • Opposing points of view represented
    • Addressing the source (actually describing the source if it is not from a predefined list of approved types of sources, e.g., .org and .gov websites may be pre-approved by domain but if a student wants to use a .com, student must tell why s/he thinks that source is appropriate)
    • Integration of sources into paper–supporting the claims, quotes not just “dropped in”
    • Bibliography present
    • Citations in bibliography are referenced in paper
    • Style of bibliography for discipline; correct format Link to Bibliography


    Association of College & Research Libraries. (2000, January). Information literacy competency standards for higher education

    Australian Library and Information Association. (2003). Statement on information literacy for all Australians (.pdf)

    Balsano, C. (2003, March). Research process rubric. Library Media Connection, 21(6), 65.

    Beck, S. (1997). Evaluation Criteria. The good, the bad & the ugly: Or, why it’s a good idea to evaluate web sources

    Fermilab Education Office, Teacher Resource Center. (2002, June 28). Assessing your work: Research paper rubric

    Fermilab Education Office, Teacher Resource Center. (2002, June 28). Assessing your work: Rubric for conducting a research study

    Hammett, P. (1999). Teaching tools for evaluating world wide web resources. Teaching Sociology, 27(1), 31-37.

    Nutefall, J. (n.d.) Information literacy paper trail

    Rio Salado College. (2003, June 3).General education competency standards and rubrics: Information literacy competency

    Rockman, I.F. (2002, October). Rubrics for assessing information competence in the California State University (.doc)

    SCORE (Schools of California Online Resources for Education). (n.d.) Rubrics

    Uniondale School Library Media Centers. (n.d.) Assessment and evaluation: Rubric: Information skills (.doc)

    Uniondale School Library Media Centers. (n.d.) Assessment and evaluation: Rubric: Research process and product (.doc)

    Marketing instruction

    Marketing Information Literacy Instruction

    • Work with your departmental liaison/s
    • Email faculty in liaison departments/schools offering help with creating good and innovative assignments, and/or offer instruction for their students
    • Post messages on GVSU_Notices and Teaching Center electronic bulletin boards
    • Attend departmental meetings
    • Talk with departments about creating a plan to meet the information literacy skills requirements in their Gen Ed courses, and in their major programs (let’s not do instruction for every class!)
    • Propose to faculty that they create some web pages on information literacy in their field; offer your expertise
    • Phone (selected) faculty (or do a group voicemail distribution)
    • Send letters or flyers or surveys
    • Talk with the department secretaries
    • Point out the Information Literacy and other Library web pages
    • Articles in Library Lites
    • Network with faculty at workshops and committee meetings
    • Send out new book lists to faculty (use Acquisitions module or Online Catalog New Items function)
    • Send short messages to faculty about new databases or web sites in liaison area

    Preparation: Questions to ask yourself

    Questions to ask yourself:


    • How much time will I need?
    • What kind of space and equipment will I need?
    • Will I teach in a computer lab, a classroom with an instructor pc and projector, other?


    • How will I assess what the students need to learn?
    • How will I assess what they have learned?
    • How can the students demonstrate their skills within their assignment?
    • Can I work with the instructor on grading/scoring criteria?
    • How will I know if the session was successful or not?
    • How do I get feedback? From in-class evaluations? From the classroom instructor?
    • How do I use my experience next time?


    • Should I send our library instruction policies (or links) to the instructor?
    • What will my goals be?
    • What content will I need to present?
    • What resources do I need to bring?
    • Will I make handouts for the class?
    • What can the students discover?
    • What will students need to do?
    • How does the number of students affect teaching and learning methods (e.g., lecture, individual writing, pair/sharing, small group discussions, hands-on computer work, plenary discussion)?
    • How do I deal with the novice user–will I stress individualized help at the Reference Desk?
    • How do I actively engage the “expertise” of the experienced user?
    • How much time will each activity take?
    • What order do I use?
    • How do my own preferences and limitations as a teacher decide which methods I use?

    Preparation: Questions to ask classroom instructors

    Questions to ask classroom instructors:

    It is important that we communicate to the instructor how much we need to know in order to teach successfully and to increase the students’ chances of successful learning.


    • What is the full course name and number?
    • How many students are there?
    • How long is the class session?
    • Will we meet in the Library classroom, the regular classroom, or a computer lab?

    Vital Questions

    • What are the purpose and objectives of the assignment for which library instruction is requested?
    • What is the general background of the students–traditional or returning adult students, level of knowledge of research, technological capability?


    • What are the goals of the course
    • Has the instructor helped the students ask questions and think about plausible answers/hypotheses before asking the students to search for information?
    • Are there grading or scoring criteria for the assignment?
    • Did the instructor work with the liaison (if that’s not you) when designing the assignment?
    • Has the instructor done the assignment her/himself?
    • Does the instructor use small groups in her/his class? Are the students in semester-long groups, are students assigned into groups as needed, or do the students choose their own groups as needed?
    • Is the instructor familiar with our library instruction policies–would they like more information?

    Amy's Info-Lit Links